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modern slavery in france

The Global Slavery Index estimates that there were 129,000 people living in modern slavery in France on any given day in 2016, reflecting a prevalence rate of 2.0 victims for every thousand people in the country. Available from: International Labour Organization 2018, ‘Migrant domestic workers’. Assess impact of legislation that makes it illegal to buy sexual services to ensure that clients of sex workers are still identifying victims of forced sexual exploitation. However, cases of forced labour have been identified among certain communities and diaspora in France, who are often exploited in textile workshops, construction and other industrial sectors, as well as in domestic servitude, often by members of their own community.4 This means that traffickers will exploit cultural and linguistic ties to coerce members of their own community into forced labour exploitation. See for more details. Keeping slavery out of supply chains helps protect vulnerable individuals and the integrity of workers, businesses, and international markets. Weiss's work complicates and enriches our understanding of the modern history of slavery and brings a valuable longue durée perspective to our understanding of early modern relations between France and North Arica." In light of the enduring harms tied to modern slavery, including in connection with garment, footwear, and accessories manufacturing, and given the mainstreaming of the movement pushing for sustainability and ethical production across industries, a handful of developed economies – such as the United States, namely, in California, the United Kingdom, France, Australia, and the Netherlands – have … Based on data from January to May 2015, CNCDH reported that only 25 cases of exploitation of begging, 100 cases of undignified working and housing conditions, and zero cases of forced labour had been identified by the police in France.5, The Committee Against Modern Slavery (Comité contre l’esclavage moderne – CCEM), an NGO which focuses on domestic workers in France, reported that in 2010, approximately 50 percent of their identified victims in domestic work came from West Africa, 35 percent from other parts of Africa, eight percent from Asia, and five percent from Europe.6 In 2013, a French woman and her husband purchased a 14-year-old girl from Côte d’Ivoire on a trip and forced her into domestic servitude. Coordinate with the British Government to provide protection and safe migration pathways for refugees and asylum seekers living in camps and cities across northern France. Chandran, R 2016, ‘French Law Bans Buying Prostitutes, Offering help instead of punishment’. Accountancy Europe, CSR Europe, and GRI, 2017, ‘Policy and Reporting: Member State Implementation of Directive 2014/95/EU: A comprehensive overview of how Member States are implementing the EU Directive on Non-financial and Diversity Information.’ Available from: European Coalition for Corporate Justice, ‘French Corporate Duty of Vigilance Law: Frequently Asked Questions.’ Available from: Fasterling, B 2017 ‘Vigilance or Compliance? Through this ratification, France has made a formal commitment to apply this international instrument within France, which gives fresh impetus to action against all forms of forced labour.41. But the recent reports about the slave trade and human trafficking in Libya have begged a topic least discussed; ‘modern slavery’.. Table 1 below highlights the top five products (according to US$ value, per annum) imported by France that are at risk of being produced under conditions of modern slavery.19, France imports US$8.2 billion worth of clothing from countries at risk of modern slavery. This bill closely resembles the U.K. Modern Slavery Act, although the French law applies to fewer companies. Develop the second national action plan based on the evaluation and findings of the CNCDH review. “Slavery has not ended,” Domota said. The statistics are, unfortunately, well known, but we must constantly point them out: 80 per cent of the victims of trafficking are women and children. In November 2017, according to UNICEF, there were an estimated 100 unaccompanied minors who may be at risk of exploitation in Calais.31 As of February 2018, there were an estimated 800-1000 refugees and migrants, including children, from Eritrea, Afghanistan, Iraq and Syria in cities along the northern French coastline.32. Slavin, T & Buckman, S 2017, ‘France briefing: The companies leading the pack on CSR’, Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of,,,,,,,,,,;jsessionid=9203B0FD092E0D15172D95BE4B9468AB?sequence=1,,,,,,,,,,,–en/index.htm,,,,;jsessionid=D100960A41B6 AC4D9FF7BA808866ACCE.tpdila11v_3?idSectionTA=LEGISCTA000006165299&cidTexte=LEGITEXT000006070719&dateTexte=2016,–en/index.htm,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, Argentina, Brazil, China, India, Malaysia, Thailand, Vietnam, China, Ghana, Indonesia, Japan, Russia, South Korea, Taiwan, Thailand. Banning these tainted goods could economically devastate companies that continue to profit from trafficked labor, forcing them to amend their ways. Levy, F 2016, ‘Demand in the Context of Trafficking in Human Beings in the Domestic Work Sector in France’. Children are a particularly vulnerable group to modern slavery and have been identified in domestic servitude, begging, and forced crime in France.28 Romanian children from the Roma community have been exploited in forced criminality (such as forced pickpocketing)29 and there have also been NGO reports of Vietnamese children trafficked through France to be exploited in cannabis industries or nail salons in the UK. Later in 1802, Napoleon Bonaparte reestablished slavery in the colo-nies. The French law addresses the global demand for cheap goods. Nationally, human trafficking is criminalised by Article 225-4-1 of the Penal code, which defines the crime as the act of recruiting, transporting, transferring, housing or receiving a person under certain circumstances for exploitation.37 French legislation on trafficking in human beings was amended by Law no. France imports over US$90 million worth of timber from Brazil and Peru which are suspected of using modern slavery in their often-illegal logging industries.20, OCLTI, the Central Office for Combating Illegal Labour, identifies persons with physical and/or mental disabilities and those from certain communities and diaspora as particularly vulnerable to forced labour exploitation in France. See for more details. Introduce a free, publicly accessible central repository where all business vigilance plans would be listed to enable monitoring by civil society. In their report, businesses are required to identify the risks that accompany their activities as well as their subsidiaries and subcontractors. 2016-444 of 13 April 2016 to provide social and professional support to victims of sex trafficking in France into programs that are victim-centred and tailored to individual needs. Please see: Business & Human Right’s Centre. Regardless, the UK Modern Slavery Act has undoubtedly had a global impact in bringing modern slavery to the foreground, compelling companies to take steps to eradicate forced labor from their supply chains. Group of Experts on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings (GRETA) 2017. International Comparative Legal Guides n.d., ‘Public Procurement 2018 in France’. Although the United States abolished slavery with the ratification of the 13th Amendment over 150 years ago, there are still an estimated 24.9 million slaves living around the world today. Unfortunately, this practice can bring an unfair burden of proof for victims who already face a severe imbalance of power. 2013-711 of 5 August 2013 bringing it in line with EU law and the international commitments of France. Twenty-three statements have been released by 22 French companies to date. 2. 2015-899 of 23 July 2015 relating to public procurement contracts, and its implementing Decree no. Ramis, M 2017, ‘Fight Against Trafficking in Human Beings in Southeast Europe’. Refugees and other migrants without documentation find it difficult to be identified as victims and remain unidentified by law enforcement.26 In 2016, the International Organization for Migration reported that approximately 75 percent of migrants attempting to cross the Mediterranean from Northern Africa had experienced modern slavery and exploitation.27 Increasingly restrictive immigration policies throughout Europe, and regional violent conflict, have forced migrants into dangerous situations in order to escape to France and other European countries. By demonstrating support for other initiatives aiming to improve corporate accountability and by enforcing existing policies at home banning the import of goods made with forced labor, the United States can send a clear message that we will not turn a blind eye to the suffering of exploited workers. This approach may be the fastest way to reach some of the millions trapped in modern slavery. While their records cover victims of “pimping and sexual exploitation”, without distinguishing whether these are victims of trafficking or other forms of exploitation, they are able to report that in 2014, there were 710 adult victims of pimping and sexual exploitation (681 women and 29 men). They did not allow her to attend school, did not pay her wages, and physically assaulted her.7, An NGO in southwest France that works with seasonal workers in the agriculture industry identified victims of forced labour exploitation primarily from Tunisia and Morocco.8 In 2008 and 2010, there were public strikes involving thousands of undocumented workers in service industries such as hotels and restaurants to demand better protections and treatment for undocumented workers in France.9 Interestingly, according to CNCDH, 30 percent of cases of forced labour exploitation involve both French abusers and French victims, highlighting that forced labour is not always conducted by foreign nationals against their own co-nationals.10, The Central Office for the Suppression of Trafficking in Human Beings (Office central de répression de la traite des êtres humains – OCRTEH) provides official statistics on French victims of forced sexual exploitation. Business and Human Rights Resource Centre 2018. See for more details. Another difference is that the French law lays out specific reporting requirements—although they are not perfect. Related Campaigns & Topics. These individuals do not then return to school in France and remain in a forced marriage overseas.18, While France is affected by exploitation within its own borders, the realities of global trade and business make it inevitable that France, like many other countries globally, will be exposed to the risk of modern slavery through the products it imports. France's leaders remain committed to a capitalism in which they maintain social equity by means of laws, tax policies, and social spending that reduce income disparity and the impact of free markets on public health and welfare. 1848 - France abolishes slavery. See for more details. According to the National Consultative Commission for Human Rights (Commission nationaleconsultative des droits de L’homme—CNCDH), the French independent rapporteur, public data in France on human trafficking and exploitation suffer from a lack of robustness and cohere… In February, the French Parliament adopted a new law establishing a duty of vigilance for businesses, requiring them to monitor their company and supply chains for human rights and environmental protection violations. In 2018 the Commonwealth Government introduced the Modern Slavery Act 2018 (Cth) (the Act) to combat modern slavery by driving the business community to proactively and meaningfully reform supply chains and workforce practices in Australia and globally. ), McPartland, B 2013, ‘French stud farm owner exploited refugee slave,’, ‘Modern slavery in France: The harsh reality that’s ignored,’, Dearden, L 2016, ‘Refugees being forced into ‘modern slavery’ by people traffickers before attempting deadly journey to Europe,’. Other countries soon followed suit, France introduced the Devoir de Vigilance in 2017, Australia passed its own Modern Slavery Act in 2018, and other European countries such as The Netherlands and Switzerland are also working on legislation to eradicate modern slavery at work. In Europe, the link between trafficking and mental health illnesses in Europe, such as depression, Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), anxiety, suicidal thoughts, as well as some physical symptoms, is well established.24 More recently, King’s College London and the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine found that 80 percent of women and 40 percent of men reported high levels of depression, anxiety, or PTSD in a 2016 study of identified victims in the UK.25. 53 The 2016 law also inserted a new provision (L316-1-1) to Article L316-1 in the Code of Entry and Residence of Foreigners and the Right of Asylum ((Code de l’entrée et du séjour des étrangers et du droit d’asile – CESEDA). 1858 - Portugal abolishes slavery in its colonies, although all slaves are subject to a 20-year apprenticeship. By Cassidy Slater. Only about 150 businesses will be affected by the new rules. Human Trafficking & Modern-day Slavery. Human trafficking. France's tax burden remains one of the highest in Europe - at nearly 50% of GDP in 2005. A year later legislation passed granting the owners of France's 248,560 slaves compensation from a … Establish centralised protocols and standard operating procedures across the French government and frontline law enforcement to identify more victims of modern slavery across all forms of exploitation in France, including those experiencing forced labour. “Trafficking in persons,” “human trafficking,” and “modern slavery” are used as umbrella terms to refer to both sex trafficking and compelled labor. They report that the majority of these victims were from Romania, France, Nigeria, China, Bulgaria, and Brazil.11 Similarly, other studies of sex trafficking in France relate to prostitution and street-based sex work rather than other specific forms of slavery. The Condé Nast International Ltd. Condé Nast Publications Ltd. During classical antiquity, several prominent societies in Europe and the ancient Near East regulated enslavement for debt and the related but distinct practice of debt bondage (in which a creditor could extract compulsory labor from a debtor in repayment of their debt, but the debtor was not formally enslaved and was not subject to all the conditions of chattel slavery, such as being perpetually owned, sellable on the open market, or stripped of kinship). Available from: European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights 2014. -- Madeleine Dobie, The Journal of Modern History "In a remarkably erudite and lucid narrative, … Contemporary slavery, also known as modern slavery or neo-slavery, refers to institutional slavery that continues to occur in present-day society. This practice could be widely successful if adopted internationally and strictly enforced. In February, the French Parliament adopted a new lawestablishing a duty of vigilance for businesses, requiring them to monitor their company and supply chains for human rights and … 3. The world’s most widespre… New York and Washington, DC. 1851 - Brazil abolishes slave trading. The use of violence, threats or coercion to transport, recruit or harbour people in order to exploit them for purposes such as forced prostitution, labour, criminality, marriage or organ removal. Commission Nationale Consultative des Droits d’Homme 2018, ‘La CNCDH alerte sur l’urgence qu’un nouveau plan national de lutte contre la traite des êtres humains soit adopté’. See for more details. The Directive also recommends integrating social considerations as part of the contract performance conditions, including asking businesses to comply with the ILO core conventions, such as Convention 29 on forced labour and Convention 182 on worst forms of child labour.62 The requirement of a conviction under these new EU rules sets a high bar, given that human rights abuses in supply chains rarely lead to criminal prosecutions, or are often unreported in the first place.63 Although the requirements of the public procurement directive are not as far-reaching as legislation in the UK or the US, for instance, they nevertheless put pressure on European governments to move toward more ethical and sustainable public procurement practices. This statement is made in accordance with obligations under the UK Modern Slavery Act 2015 and sets out the actions Britvic has taken during the year ended 30th September 2020 (‘2020’) to understand potential modern slavery risks and prevent modern slavery and … For a detailed methodology of how these products were identified, please refer to Appendix 3 in the GSI 2018 report. We do not favor or oppose any candidate for public office. March 24, 2017. Ending it is a choice the world can make. Support prevalence estimation efforts and studies at city, department, region, and national levels in France, including collaboration with Walk Free Foundation and European efforts to conduct Multiple Systems Estimation (MSE) on government-held modern slavery data. Human Rights First is a premier institution devoted to the noblest of all causes. France Diplomatie n.d., ‘Fight Against Human Trafficking.’ Available from: France Diplomatie n.d., ‘Forced Marriage: You are protected by law’. Human Rights First is a nonpartisan, 501(c)(3), international human rights organization based in CNCDH reported that between January and May 2015, there were 45 total cases of human trafficking identified, 313 cases of procuring (or purchasing commercial sex), and 32 cases of forced prostitution.12 In 2014, the same source identified 49 human trafficking cases, 255 procuring cases, and 54 cases of forced prostitution.13, Commercial sexual exploitation also affects children in France, with reports that in 2015, of the 50 child victims of trafficking identified in Paris, 29 were victims of commercial sexual exploitation.14 The majority of victims of sexual exploitation were French girls, but there has been a reported increase in the number of Nigerian victims of commercial sexual exploitation, in particular girls younger than 15 and sometimes as young as 11.15 Data from Eurostat confirms that 225 Nigerian victims were identified in France between 2010 and 2012 – the third highest number of Nigerian victims reported across Europe.16, Recent analysis by the National Institute of Demographic Studies (Institut national d’études démographiques — INED) of the Trajectories and Origins survey on population diversity revealed that in 2008, of immigrant women aged 51-60, nine percent were married against their will and 13 percent were married without their full consent, concluding that 22 percent of immigrant women aged 51-60 did not freely choose their marriage. In 2013, for example, a mentally ill Cambodian refugee was exploited for labour on a farm. Available from: International Labour Organization 2016, ‘France joins the global movement against forced labour’. Establish regular coordination meetings with all national and local stakeholders, including civil society. How the French are Tackling Modern Slavery. Profits of 150 billion USD are generated yearly from modern slavery(ILO) The estimated number of people in modern slavery globally is 35.8million: equivalent to the population of Canada and only 10 countries account for 71% (Global slavery index) Among the 168 million child laborers in 2012, 85 million were engaged in hazardous work conditions modern slavery act statement We believe that forced labor in any of its forms has no place in our operations or supply chains and that business, government and civil society must work together to make progress on this complex issue. Out of the 1,826 victims identified, the major industries of exploitation included the sex industry (1,476 out of the 1,826 victims), domestic work (185 victims), forced labour (80), forced criminality (66), and forced begging (13).3, The Central Office for Combating Illegal Labour (Office central de lutte contre le travail illégal – OCLTI) does not maintain available statistical data on labour trafficking or forced labour. Law No. Ensure that the new national action plan is fully resourced with a clear understanding of roles and responsibilities of different agencies. Modern slavery takes many forms. France transposed Directive 2014/24/EU into national law through Ordinance no. If it is not made available, financial penalties can be imposed upon the business by a judge.79, In 2017 France adopted a “Corporate duty of vigilance law” obligating French companies to implement an effective “vigilance” or due diligence plan that directly and practically addresses environmental, health and security, and business-related human rights risks, including serious violations of human rights and fundamental freedoms.80 The scope of the new law extends to all French companies that have more than 5,000 employees domestically or employ 10,000 employees worldwide.81 Article 1 of the law, which incorporates Article L. 225-102-4 of the French Commercial Code, requires that the vigilance plan includes a mapping of risks and procedures that both mitigate and prevent serious violations as well as a monitoring scheme.82, Companies in France are also becoming increasingly aware of the importance of conveying increased transparency and accountability to stakeholders, including establishing a positive public image through adequate CSR reporting. The Global Slavery Index estimates that there were 129,000 people living in modern slavery in France on any given day in 2016, reflecting a prevalence rate of 2.0 victims for every thousand people in the country. This slavery and human trafficking statement is made on behalf of Clyde & Co LLP, ("Clyde & Co"), pursuant to section 54 of the Modern Slavery Act 2015 (the "Act") for the financial year ending on 30 April 2019. These statements vary in quality, with some companies including comprehensive information on their response to modern slavery in supply chains all the way through to statements that are not available on the home page or have not been signed by a CEO or Director. The law effectively pressures companies to prioritize workers. France has made great improvements in its efforts to coordinate government services through the creation of an inter-ministerial mission for the protection of women against violence and the fight against human trafficking (MIPROF) in January 2013 to coordinate counter trafficking strategy at the national level. Extend the Duty of Vigilance Law to apply to public procurement. “We are still France’s modern slaves.” We want to hear what you think about this article. After the closure of an informal migrant camp in Calais, nicknamed ‘the jungle’, in October 2016, migrants dispersed across France, but many have since returned.

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